Overall Green alert Volcanic eruption for Mauna Loa
in United States

Event summary

GREEN alert: The Mauna Loa Volcanic eruption is unlikely to require external humanitarian assistance based on the exposed population and coping capacity.

GDACS ID VO 1000055
Name: Mauna Loa
Lat/Lon: 19.475 , -155.608
Event Date: 04 Dec 2022 UTC
Exposed Population 30km: About 100 people within 30km
Exposed Population 100km: About 190000 people within 100km
Max Volc. Explosivity Index VEI: 2
Population Exposure Index PEI: 2
Inserted at: 04 Dec 2022 08:57 UTC

GDACS Score

For more info on GDACS alert score click here.
Volcanic Activity SummaryMon, 28 Nov 2022 10:49

According to the HVO/USGS Volcanic Activity Notice, at approximately 11:30 p.m. HST this evening, November 27, an eruption began in Moku‘aweoweo, the summit caldera of Mauna Loa, inside Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park. At this time, lava flows are contained within the summit area and are not threatening downslope communities. Winds may carry volcanic gas and possibly fine ash and Pele’s hair downwind. Residents at risk from Mauna Loa lava flows should review preparedness and refer to Hawai‘i County Civil Defense information for further guidance. Based on past events, the early stages of a Mauna Loa eruption can be very dynamic and the location and advance of lava flows can change rapidly. If the eruption remains in Moku‘aweoweo, lava flows will most likely be confined within the caldera walls. However, if the eruptive vents migrate outside its walls, lava flows may move rapidly downslope. HVO is in close consultation with emergency management partners and will be monitoring the volcano closely to provide further updates on activity. As soon as possible, HVO will conduct aerial reconnaissance to better describe the eruption and assess hazards.
Virtual OSOCC
Meteo assessment
Satellite products
Analytical products
USA - Volcanic eruption (ECHO 30 Nov 2022)Wed, 30 Nov 2022 11:42

  • On 27 November, the Mauna Loa volcano (Hawaiian Islands, USA), started erupting lava flows from the summit region of the volcano and migrated over the Northeast Rift Zone on 28-29 November. On 30 November, the Northeast Rift Zone eruption of Mauna Loa continues, with several fissures and lava flows actively travelling in a northeast direction. This lava flow crossed the Mauna Loa Weather Observatory Road, and the flow front was located approximately 7.5 km from Saddle Road. As of 30 November at 2.23 UTC, visible gas plumes from the erupting fissure fountains and lava flows have been recorded by USGS.
  • According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and USGS, precautionary evacuations are in effect, two shelters have been opened with 56 occupants but currently, no property is at risk. In addition, the Mauna Loa Road has been closed from Kipukapuaulu to the summit caldera.
  • There are no flight restrictions but the aviation colour code is red (eruption is underway or suspected with significant emission of volcanic ash into the atmosphere).
Detailed event map. European Union, 2023. Map produced by EC-JRC.
The boundaries and the names shown on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the European Union.

Updates on volcanic activity (Smithsonian)

The Smithsonian/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report provides information about global volcanism on a weekly basis. Latest Mauna Loa report has been published on 30 Nov 2022 08:08.
An eruption at Mauna Loa began at about 2330 on 27 November in Moku?aweoweo, the summit caldera, prompting HVO to raise the Aviation Color Code to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale) and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning (the highest level on a four-level scale). A thermal anomaly and a plume of sulfur dioxide gas were identified in satellite images at the onset of the eruption, according to NOAA?s National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS). Hawai?i Volcanoes National Park closed the summit area to visitors. Lava erupted from a fissure in the caldera and by 0127 on 28 November lava had overflowed the caldera walls. During an overflight at about 0630 scientists confirmed that the eruption had moved from the summit to the Northeast Rift Zone, where three fissures opened at a high elevation. The fissures fed several lava flows that traveled N and NE; the flows were active in the ?saddle? area between Mauna Loa and Mauna Kea and were not threatening any populated areas. Lava fountains along the fissures were as tall as 30-60 m, though most were only a few meters tall. Lava flows from fissures 1 and 2 traveled downslope and stalled about 18 km from the Saddle Road; the two fissures were inactive by 1330. Sulfur dioxide emissions were approximately 250,000 tonnes per day. Fissure 3, at the lowest elevation of the NE fissures, issued the longest lava flows. Lava flows crossed the Mauna Loa Weather Observatory Road at about 2000 on 28 November; by 0700 on 29 November the flow front was about 10 km from the Saddle Road. Lava fountains at Fissure 3 were 25 m high in the morning on 29 November but had grown to 40-50 m tall in the afternoon. Fissure 4, downslope of Fissure 3, opened at about 1930 and produced lava fountains that rose 5-10 m high. There was no activity in the summit caldera, nor along the Southwest Rift Zone. Gas plumes from the activity drifted N. Sources: National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) ,US Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)
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Latest media headlines

Articles: 438 | About casualties: 2 | Last hour: 0

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Ask the Expert: Why is Mauna Loa erupting now and for how long?2022-12-07T21:14+0100.

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Estimated casualties (PAGER)

USGS estimates the number of casualties for each earthquake for the Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) product.
The graph shows the current fatalities estimate.

Exposed population

Data, images, links, services and documents

For this events, GDACS has links to information from the following sources: EC-JRC (32), (2), INGV (2), WMO (1), INFORM (2),